Prior to the arrival of white settlers around 1740, Asheboro was the site of Indian villages. One such village was discovered in 1936 and an Indian burial ground has also been located. When Randolph County was organized in 1779, the town of Asheboro was founded and made the county seat.
The name honors Samuel Ashe, governor of North Carolina at the time the town was incorporated in 1796. The original form was Asheborough, which was retained until 1923, when the Post Office changed it to “Ashboro.” Local citizens objected, and a compromise name of “Asheboro” was accepted.